Metformin dosing

Discussion in 'Prescription Price Comparison' started by Hettrik, 18-Aug-2019.

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    Metformin dosing


    Immediate-release: Initial dose: 500 mg orally twice a day or 850 mg orally once a day Dose titration: Increase in 500 mg weekly increments or 850 mg every 2 weeks as tolerated Maintenance dose: 2000 mg daily in divided doses Maximum dose: 2550 mg/day Extended-release: Initial dose: 500 to 1000 mg orally once a day Dose titration: Increase in 500 mg weekly increments as tolerated Maintenance dose: 2000 mg daily Maximum dose: 2500 mg daily Comments: -Metformin, if not contraindicated, is the preferred initial pharmacologic agent for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. -Immediate-release: Take in divided doses 2 to 3 times a day with meals; titrate slowly to minimize gastrointestinal side effects. In general, significant responses are not observed with doses less than 1500 mg/day. -Extended-release: Take with the evening meal; if glycemic control is not achieved with 2000 mg once a day, may consider 1000 mg of extended-release product twice a day; if glycemic control is still not achieve, may switch to immediate-release product. Use: To improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise. 10 years or older: Immediate-release: Initial dose: 500 mg orally twice a day Dose titration: Increase in 500 mg weekly increments as tolerated Maintenance dose: 2000 mg daily Maximum dose: 2000 mg daily Comments: Take in divided doses 2 to 3 times a day with meals. Titrate slowly to minimize gastrointestinal side effects. Indicated as adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are not adequately controlled on a regimen containing ertugliflozin or metformin, or in patients who are already treated with both ertugliflozin and metformin Individualize starting dose based on patient’s current regimen, while not exceeding daily dose of ertugliflozin 15 mg and metformin 2000 mg Take BID with meals Patients on metformin: Switch to tablets containing 2.5 mg ertugliflozin, with a similar total daily dose of metformin Patients on ertugliflozin: Switch to tablets containing 500 mg metformin, with a similar total daily dose of ertugliflozin Patients already on ertugliflozin and metformin: Switch to tablets containing same total daily dose of ertugliflozin and a similar daily dose of metformin To reduce GI adverse effects, gradually escalate dose for those initiating metformin Adjust dose based on effectiveness and tolerability Concomitant use with insulin and insulin secretagogues may increase the risk of hypoglycemia; lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with ertugliflozin ≥65 years: No dosage adjustment necessary based on age Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function; because renal function abnormalities can occur after initiating ertugliflozin, and metformin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidneys, care should be taken in dose selection in elderly patients (see Adult Dosing, Dosage Modifications)Assess renal function in elderly patients prior to initiating dosing and periodically thereafter Patients aged ≥65 years had a higher incidence of adverse reactions related to volume depletion compared with younger patients Volume depletion adverse effects (1.9-4.4%) Male genital mycotic infections (3.7-4.2%) Urinary tract infections (4-4.1%) Headache (2.9-3.5%) Vaginal pruritus (2.4-2.8%) Increased urination (2.4-2.7%) Nasopharyngitis (2-2.5%) Back pain (1.7-2.5%) Renal adverse effects (1.3-2.5%) Weight decreased (1.2-2.4%) Thirst (1.4-2.7%) Cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis reported, including fatalities (see Black Box Warnings and Contraindications) Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier gangrene) reported with SGLT2 inhibitors; signs and symptoms include tenderness, redness, or swelling of the genitals or the area from the genitals back to the rectum, and have a fever above 100.4 F or a general feeling of being unwell; if suspected, discontinue SGLT2 inhibitor and start treatment immediately with broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical debridement if necessary Causes intravascular volume contraction; symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiating, particularly in patients with renal impairment, with low systolic blood pressure, on diuretics, or who are elderly Ketoacidosis, a serious life-threatening condition requiring urgent hospitalization, reported; before initiating, consider factors that may predispose patient to ketoacidosis, including pancreatic insulin deficiency from any cause, caloric restriction, and alcohol abuse; monitor for ketoacidosis and temporarily discontinue in clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis (eg, prolonged fasting owing to acute illness or surgery) Renal impairment may occur owing to intravascular volume contraction; before initiating, consider factors that may predispose patients to acute kidney injury, including hypovolemia, chronic renal insufficiency, CHF, and concomitant medications (eg, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, NSAIDs); consider temporarily discontinuing ertugliflozin in any setting of reduced oral intake or fluid loss; monitor for signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury, and, if evident, discontinue drug promptly and institute treatment (see Contraindications and Dosage Modifications) Serious urinary tract infections, including urosepsis and pyelonephritis, requiring hospitalization reported in patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors An increased risk for lower limb amputation (primarily of the toe) has been observed in clinical studies with another SGLT2 inhibitor; before initiating, consider factors that may predispose patient to increased risk of amputations (eg, history of prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, diabetic foot ulcers) Genital mycotic infections may occur; patients with history of genital mycotic infections and uncircumcised males are more susceptible Dose-related increases in LDL-C reported Vitamin B12 levels may decrease; metformin may interfere with absorption from B12-intrinsic factor complex No conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with empagliflozin or any other antidiabetic agent Ertugliflozin: Selective sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor; lowers the renal glucose threshold (ie, the plasma glucose concentration which exceed the maximum glucose reabsorption capacity of the kidney); lowering the renal glucose threshold results in increased urinary glucose excretion Metformin: Decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization; improves glucose tolerance by lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Individual plans may vary and formulary information changes. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information.

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    Metformin is a commonly recommended initial medication for patients with type 2 diabetes. Available dosage of pills include 500 mg, 850 mg, and 1000 mg. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the conventional immediate-release IR formulation of metformin need three times daily dosing. Medscape - Diabetes type 2-specific dosing for Glucophage, Glucophage XR metformin, frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications.

    Carefully follow the special meal plan your doctor gave you. This is a very important part of controlling your condition, and is necessary if the medicine is to work properly. Also, exercise regularly and test for sugar in your blood or urine as directed. Metformin should be taken with meals to help reduce stomach or bowel side effects that may occur during the first few weeks of treatment. Swallow the tablet or extended-release tablet whole with a full glass of water. While taking the extended-release tablet, part of the tablet may pass into your stool after your body has absorbed the medicine. Measure the oral liquid with a marked measuring spoon, oral syringe, or medicine cup. The average household teaspoon may not hold the right amount of liquid. Use only the brand of this medicine that your doctor prescribed. You may notice improvement in your blood glucose control in 1 to 2 weeks, but the full effect of blood glucose control may take up to 2 to 3 months. Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function; contraindicated in patients with renal impairment, carefully monitor renal function in the elderly and use with caution as age increases Not for use in patients 80 years unless normal renal function established Initial and maintenance dosing of metformin should be conservative in patients with advanced age due to the potential for decreased renal function in this population Controlled clinical studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients Asthenia Diarrhea Flatulence Weakness Myalgia Upper respiratory tract infection Hypoglycemia GI complaints Lactic acidosis (rare) Low serum vitamin B-12 Nausea/vomiting Chest discomfort Chills Dizziness Abdominal distention Constipation Heartburn Dyspepsia 5 mmol/L), decreased blood p H, electrolyte disturbances with an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; when metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma concentrations 5 mcg/m L are generally found Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (eg, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment; if metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue Patients with CHF requiring pharmacologic management, in particular those with unstable or acute CHF who are at risk for hypoperfusion and hypoxemia, are at an increased risk for lactic acidosis; the risk for lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal dysfunction and the patient’s age Do not start in patients aged 80 years or older unless Cr Cl demonstrates that renal function is not reduced, because these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis; metformin should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration, or sepsis Should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease; patients should be cautioned against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, during metformin therapy because alcohol potentiates the effects of metformin on lactate metabolism Discontinue metformin at the time of or before an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an e GFR between 30-60 m L/minute/1.73 m²; in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinate contrast The onset of lactic acidosis often is subtle and accompanied by nonspecific symptoms (eg, malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, nonspecific abdominal distress); with marked acidosis, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias may occur; patients should be instructed regarding recognition of these symptoms and told to notify their physician immediately if the symptoms occur; metformin should be withdrawn until the situation is clarified; serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, and, if indicated, blood p H, lactate levels, and even blood metformin levels may be useful Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of metformin, GI symptoms, which are common during initiation of therapy, are unlikely to be drug related; later occurrences of GI symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis who is lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia); lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting; in a patient with lactic acidosis who is taking metformin, the drug should be discontinued immediately and general supportive care measures promptly instituted; metformin is highly dialyzable (clearance up to 170 m L/min under good hemodynamic conditions); prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and to remove the accumulated metformin; such management often results in prompt reversal of symptoms and recovery Increased risk of severe hypoglycemia especially in elderly, debilitated or malnourished, adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, dehydration, heavy alcohol use, hypoxic states, hepatic/renal impairment, stress due to infection, fever, trauma, or surgery Concomitant administration of insulin and insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulfonylurea) may increase risk of hypoglycemia; therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with metformin Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase risk for volume depletion, hypotension, and renal impairment; therapy should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake Rare lactic acidosis may occur due to metformin accumulation; fatal in approximately 50% of cases; risk increases with age, degree of renal dysfunction, and with unstable or acute CHF; if metformin-associated lactic acidosis suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of therapy; in patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable, with a clearance of up to170 m L/minute under good hemodynamic conditions); hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery Possible increased risk of CV mortality May cause ovulation in anovulatory and premenopausal PCOS patients May be necessary to discontinue therapy with metformin and administer insulin if patient is exposed to stress (fever, trauma, infection), or experiences diabetic ketoacidosis Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia); cardiovascular collapse (shock) acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia; discontinue therapy when such events occur May impair vitamin B12 or calcium intake/absorption; monitor B12 serum concentrations periodically with long-term therapy Not indicated for use in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus that are insulin dependent due to lack of efficacy Withhold in patients with dehydration and/or prerenal azotemia Conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with metformin not established Limited data with in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage; published studies with metformin use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defect or miscarriage risk; poorly-controlled diabetes mellitus in pregnancy increases maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, stillbirth and delivery complications; poorly controlled diabetes mellitus increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk; however, there is insufficient information to determine effects of metformin on breastfed infant and no available information on effects of metformin on milk production; therefore, developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with mother’s clinical need for therapy and any potential adverse effects on breastfed child from therapy or from the underlying maternal condition The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Individual plans may vary and formulary information changes. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information.

    Metformin dosing

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    Dosing chart for metformin including dosage forms, dosing recommendations, food effects, generic availability, and more. Medscape - Type 2 diabetes mellitus dosing for Segluromet ertugliflozin/metformin, frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions. See dosage of metformin as per monotherapy. When transferring patients to metformin from standard oral hypoglycemic agents other than chlorpropamide.

     
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